First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians Part 2



The Resurrection further proved.

1. Let us consider that wonderful type of the resurrection which is seen in the Eastern countries, that is to say, in Arabia.
2. There is a certain bird called a Phoenix, of which there is never but one at a time: and that one lives five hundred years. And when the time of its dissolution draws near, that it must die, it makes itself a nest of frankincense and myrrh, and other spices into which, when its time is fulfilled, it enters and dies.
3. But when its flesh putrefies, it breeds a certain worm, which being nourished with the juice of the dead bird brings forth feathers; and when it is grown to a perfect state, it takes up the nest in which the bones of its parents lie and carries it from Arabia into Egypt, to a city called Heliopolis:
4. And flying in open day in the sight of all men, lays it upon the altar of the sun, and so returns from where it came.
5. The priests then search into the records of the time, and find that it returned precisely at the end of five hundred years.
6. And shall we then think it to be any very great and strange thing for the Lord of all to raise up those that religiously serve him in the assurance of a good faith, when even by a bird he shows us the greatness of his power to fulfil his promise?

Photius, patriarch of Constantinople, in the ninth century, objected to the genuineness of this Epistle on the ground that Clement, to prove the possibility of a future resurrection, introduces the fabulous story of the phoenix's revival from its own ashes. Archbishop Wake replies that the generality of the ancient Fathers have made use of the same instance in proof of the same point, and asks if St. Clement really believed that there was such a bird, and that it did revive out of the cinders of the body after burning, where was the great harm either in giving credit to such a wonder, or, believing it, to make such a use as he here does of it? Clement and the others probably did not believe it, but it was too good an analogy to ignore.

7. For he says in a certain place, You will raise me up, and I shall confess to you.
8. And again, I laid me down and slept, and awaked, because you are with me.

See Psalm 3:5.

9. And again, Job says, You will raise up this flesh of mine that has suffered all these things.

See Job 19:25, 26.

10. Having therefore this hope, let us hold fast to him who is faithful in all his promises, and righteous in all his judgments; he has commanded us not to lie, so how much more will he himself not lie?
11. For nothing is impossible with God but to lie.
12. Let his faith then be stirred up again in us; and let us consider that all things are near to him.
13. By the word of his power he made all things; and by the same word he is able, whenever he will, to destroy them.
14. Who will say to him, What are you doing? Or who will resist the power of his strength?

Compare with: "For who shall say, What hast thou done? for who shall withstand thy judgment: or who shall accuse thee for the nations that perish, whom thou hast made? or who shall come to stand against thee, to be revenged for the unrighteous men?" (Wisdom of Solomon 12:12, in the Apocrypha)

15. When, and as he pleased, he will do all things; and nothing will pass away of all that has been determined by him.
16. All things are open before him, nor can anything be hidden from his council.
17. The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament shows his handiwork. Day to day utters speech, and night to night shows knowledge. There is so speech nor language where their voice is not heard.

See Psalm 19:1-3.

It is impossible to escape the vengeance of God, if we continue in sin.

1. Seeing then all things are seen and heard by God, let us fear him, and let us lay aside our wicked works which proceed from ill desires, so that through his mercy we may be delivered from the condemnation to come.
2. For where can any of us flee from his mighty hand? Or what world will receive any of those who run away from him?
3. For thus say the Scripture in a certain place, Where shall I flee from your Spirit, or where shall I hide myself from your presence?

Compare Psalm 139:7-10.

4. If I ascend up into heaven, you are there; if I shall go to the utmost part of the earth, there is your right hand; if I shall make my bed in the deep, your Spirit is there.

The "deep" is "sheol" in Hebrew, meaning either the grave or hell. In the Septuagint, the Greek word is "hades," or the abode of the dead, that is, hell.

Compare with: "Wither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, thou [art] there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou [art there]. [If] I take the wings of the morning, [and] dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; Even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me." (Psalm 139:7-10)

The Septuagint reads: "Wither shall I go from thy Spirit? and wither shall I fee from thy presence? If I should go up to heaven, thou art there: if I should go down to hell, thou art present. If I should spread my wings [to fly] straight forward, and sojourn at the extremity of the sea [it would be vain], for even there thy hand would guide me, and thy right hand would hold me."

5. Where then will anyone go, or where will he run from him that comprehends all things?
6. Let us therefore come to him with holiness of heart, lifting up chaste and undefiled hands to him; loving our gracious and merciful Father, who has made us to partake of his calling.

Compare with: "I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting." (1 Timothy 2:8)

7. For so it is written, When the Most High divided the nations, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the nations, according to the number of his angels; his people Jacob became the portion of the Lord, and Israel the lot of his inheritance.

Compare with: "When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel. For the Lord's portion [is] his people; Jacob [is] the lot of his inheritance." [cf. Deuteronomy 32:8, 9]; the Septuagint version reads: "When the Most High divided the nations, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the nations according to the number of the angels of God. And his people Jacob became the portion of the Lord, Israel was the line of his inheritance."

8. And in another place he says, Behold the Lord takes to himself a nation, out of the midst of the nations, as a man takes the first-fruits of his flower; and the Most Holy will come out of that nation.

Compare with: "Or hath God assayed to go [and] take him a nation from the midst of [another] nation..." (Deuteronomy 4:34); if the "first-fruits of his flower" is a poetic way of saying "the first-born of his progeny," there may be an oblique reference to the practice is Numbers 27:7-11.

How we must live that we may please God.

1. Since we are a part of the Holy One, let us do all those things that pertain to holiness:
2. Fleeing all evil-speaking against one another, all filthy and impure embraces, together with all drunkenness, youthful lusts, abominable concupiscences, detestable adultery, and execrable pride.
3. For God, he says, resists the proud but gives grace to the humble.

Compare with: "But he giveth more grace. Wherefore he saith, God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble." (James 4:6); "...Yea, all [of you] be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble." (1 Peter 5:5)

4. Let us therefore hold fast to those to whom God has given his grace.
5. And let us put on concord, and be humble, temperate, free from all whispering and detraction, and be justified by our actions, not our words.
6. For he says, Does he that speaks and hears many things, and that is of a ready tongue, suppose that he is righteous? Blessed in he that is born of a woman, that lives but a few days; therefore do not speak much.

Clement quotes the Septuagint; compare first the King James Version: "Should not the multitude of words be answered? and should a man full of talk be justified? Should thy lies make men hold their peace: and when thou mockest, shall no man make thee ashamed?" (Job 11:2, 3).

The Septuagint reading is: "He that speaks much should also hear on the other side: or does the fluent speaker think himself to be righteous? blessed [is] the short-lived offspring of a woman."

7. Let our praise be from God, not from ourselves; for God hates those that commend themselves.
8. Let the witness of our good actions be given to us by others, as it was given to the holy men that went before us.
9. Rashness, and arrogance, and confidence, belong to them who are accursed of God: but equity, and humility, and mildness, to such as are blessed by him.
10. Let us then lay hold of his blessing, and let us consider what are the ways by which we may attain it.
11. Let us look back upon those things that have happened from the beginning.
12. For what was our father Abraham blessed? Was it not because that through faith he wrought righteousness and truth?
13. Because Isaac was fully persuaded of what he knew was to come, he cheerfully yielded himself up for a sacrifice. Jacob with humility departed out of his own country, fleeing from his brother, and went to Laban and served him; and so the scepter of the twelve tribes of Israel was given to him.
14. Now what the greatness of this gift was, will plainly appear, if we shall take the pains distinctly to consider all the parts of it.
15. For from him came the priests and Levites, who all ministered at the altar of God.
16. From him came our Lord Jesus Christ according to the flesh.
17. From him came the kings, and princes, and rulers in Judah.
18. Nor were the rest of his tribes in any small glory, for God promised, Your descendants will be as the stars of heaven.
19. Therefore they all were greatly glorified, not for their own sake, or for their own works, or for the righteousness that they themselves wrought, but through his will.
20. And we also, having been called by the same will in Christ Jesus, are not justified by ourselves, neither by our own wisdom, or knowledge, or piety, or the works which we have done in the holiness of our hearts:
21. But by that faith by which God Almighty has justified all men from the beginning; to whom be glory forever and ever. Amen.

We are justified by faith; yet this must not lessen our care to live well, nor our pleasure in it.

1. What shall we do therefore, brethren? Shall we be slothful in well-doing, and lay aside our charity? God forbid that any such thing should be done by us.
2. But rather let us hasten with all earnestness and readiness of mind to perfect every good work, for even the Creator and Lord of all things himself rejoices in his own works.
3. By his Almighty power he fixed the heavens, and by his incomprehensible wisdom he adorned them.
4. He also divided the earth from the water with which it is surrounded; and fixed it as a secure tower, upon the foundations of his own will.
5. He also by his appointment commanded to exist all the living creatures that are upon it.
6. So likewise the sea, and all the creatures that are in it, having first created them, he enclosed them therein by his power.
7. And above all, he with his holy and pure hands formed man, the most excellent, and, as to his understanding, truly the greatest of all other creatures, the character of his own image.
8. For so God says, Let us make man in our image, after our own likeness. So God created man, male and female created he them.
9. And having thus finished all these things, he commended all that he had made, and blessed them, and said, Increase and multiply.

Verses 3-9 are a summary of Genesis 1.

10. We see how all righteous men have been adorned with good works, for which reason even the Lord himself, having adorned himself with his works, rejoiced.
11. Having therefore such an example, let us without delay fulfill his will and work the work of righteousness with all our strength.

This is enforced from the examples of the holy angels, and from the exceeding greatness of that reward which God has prepared for us.

1. The good workman with confidence receives the bread of his labor; but the sluggish and lazy cannot look in the face him who put him to work.
2. We must therefore be ready and prompt in well-doing, for from him are all things.
3. And thus he foretells us, Behold the Lord is coming, and his reward is with him, even before his face, to render to everyone according to his work.

Compare with: "Behold, the Lord hath proclaimed unto the end of the world,, Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation cometh; behold, his reward [is] with him, and his work before him." (Isaiah 62:11)

See also Jude 14, 15; Revelation 21:12, 13.

4. He therefore warns us with all his heart to this end beforehand, that we should not be slothful and negligent in well- doing.
5. Let our boasting, therefore, and our confidence be in God. Let us submit ourselves to his will. Let us consider the whole multitude of his angels, how ready they stand to minister to his will.
6. As the Scripture says, Thousands of thousands stood before him, and ten thousand times ten thousand ministered to him. And they cried, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Sabbaoth: The whole earth is full of his glory.

Compare with: "A fiery steam issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened." (Daniel 7:10); "And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy [is] the Lord of hosts: the whole earth [is] full of his glory." Isaiah 6:3)

7. For this reason let us also conscientiously be gathered together in concord with one another, and with one mouth, as it were, cry earnestly to him that he would make us partakers of his great and glorious promises.
8. For he says, Eye has not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God has prepared for them that wait for him.

Compare with: "For since the beginning of the world [men] have not heard, nor perceived by the ear, neither hath the eye seen, O God, beside thee, [what] he hath prepared for him that waiteth for him." (Isaiah 64:4); "But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. But God hath revealed [them] unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God." (1 Corinthians 2:9, 10)

1. We must attain to this reward by faith and obedience, which we must carry on in an orderly pursuing of the duties of our several stations, without envy or contention. 24. The necessity of different orders among men. 33. None of us have anything but what we received of God: whom therefore we ought in every condition thankfully to obey.

1. How blessed and wonderful, beloved, are the gifts of God.
2. Life in immortality! Brightness in righteousness! Truth in full assurance! Faith in confidence! Temperance in holiness!
3. And all this God has subjected to our understandings:
4. What therefore will those things be which he has prepared for them that wait for him?
5. Only the Creator and Father of spirits, the Most Holy, knows both the greatness and beauty of them.
6. Let us therefore strive with all earnestness, that we may be found in the number of those that wait for him, and that we may receive the reward which he has promised.
7. But how, beloved, shall we do this? We must fix our minds by faith towards God, and seek those things that are pleasing and acceptable to him.
8. We must perform those things that are agreeable to his holy will and follow the way of truth, casting off from us all unrighteousness and iniquity, together with all covetousness, strife, evil manners, deceit, whispering, detractions, all hatred of God, pride and boasting, or vain-glory and ambition;
9. For they that do these things are odious to God, and not only they that do them, but also all such as approve of those that do them.

See Romans 1:32.
10. For thus the Scripture says, But to the wicked, God said, What have you to do to declare my statute, or that you should take my covenant in your mouth? Seeing that you hate instruction, and cast my words behind you.

"But unto the wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to declare my statutes, or [that] thou shouldest take my covenant in thy mouth: Seeing thou hatest instruction, and castest my words behind thee." (Psalm 50:16, 17)

11. When you saw a thief, then you consented with him. You have been a partaker with adulterers. You give your mouth to evil, and your tongue frames deceit. You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother's son.
12. These things you have done and I kept silence; you thought that I was altogether such a one as yourself, but I will reprove you, and set them in order before your eyes.
13. Now consider this you that forget God, lest I tear you in pieces, and there be none to deliver.
14. Whosoever offers praise, glorifies me; and to him that arranges his way aright, will I show the salvation of God.

Verses 11:14 are from Psalm 50:18-23.

15. This is the way, beloved, in which we may find our Savior, even Jesus Christ, the high-priest of all our offerings, the defender and helper of our weakness.
16. By him we look up to the highest heavens; and behold, as in a looking-glass, his spotless and most excellent visage.
17. By him are the eyes of our hearts opened; by him our foolish and darkened understanding rejoices to behold his wonderful light.
18. By him would God have us to taste the knowledge of immortality. He, who is the brightness of his glory, is so much greater than the angels that he has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.

Compare Hebrews 1:3,4

19. For so it is written, Who makes his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire:

See Psalm 104:4; Hebrews 1:7.

20. But to his son, thus said the Lord, You are my Son, today have I begotten you.

Compare with: "I will declare the decree: the Lord hath said unto me, Thou [art] my Son; this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I shall give [thee] the heathen [for] thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth [for] thy possession." (Psalm 2:7, 8); "For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee: And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?" (Hebrews 1:5)

21. Ask of me, and I will give you the heathen for your inheritance, and the utmost parts of the earth for your possession.

Compare Psalm 2:7,8

22. And again he says to him, Sit on my right hand until I make your enemies your footstool.

Compare with: "The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool." (Psalm 110:1); "But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?" (Hebrews 1:13)

23. But who are his enemies? The wicked, and such who oppose their own wills to the will of God.
24. Let us therefore march on, men and brethren, with all earnestness in his holy laws.
25. Let us consider those who fight under our earthly governors: How orderly, how readily, and with what exact obedience they perform those things that are commanded them.
26. All are not generals, nor colonels, nor inferior officers,
27. But every one in his respective rank does what is commanded him by the king, and by those who have the authority over him.
28. They who are great, cannot subsist without those that are little, nor the little without the great.
29. But there must be a mixture in all things, and then there will be use and profit too.
30. Let us, for example, take our body: the head without the feet is nothing, neither the feet without the head.

See 1 Corinthians 12:14-21.

31. And even the smallest members of our body are yet both necessary and useful to the whole body.
32. But all cooperate and are subject to one common purpose, namely, the preservation of the whole body.
33. Let therefore our whole body by saved in Christ Jesus; and let every one be subject to his neighbor, according to the order in which he is placed by the gift of God.
34. Let not the strong man despise the weak, and let the weak see that he reverence the strong.
35. Let the rich man distribute to the needs of the poor, and let the poor bless God that he has given one to him by whom his lack may be supplied.
36. Let the wise man show forth his wisdom, not in words, but in good works.
37. Let him that is humble, not bear witness to himself, but let him leave it to another to bear witness of him.
38. Let him that is pure in the flesh not grow proud of it, knowing that it was from another that he received the gift of continence.
39. Let us consider therefore, brethren, what we are made of: who we are and what kind of men we came into the world, as it were out of a sepulchre, and from outer darkness.
40. He that made and formed us, brought us into his own world, having prepared for us with his benefits even before we were born.
41. Wherefore, having received all those things from him, we ought in everything to give thanks to him; to whom be glory forever and ever. Amen.

He exhorts them to do everything orderly in the Church as the only way to please God.

1. Foolish and unwise men who have neither prudence nor learning may mock and deride us, being willing to set up themselves in their own conceits;
2. But what can a mortal man do? Or what strength is there in him who is made out of the dust?
3. For it is written, There was no shape before my eyes; only I heard a sound and a voice.
4. For what? Will man be pure before the Lord? Will he be blameless in his works?
5. Behold, he trusts not in his servants; and his angels he charges with folly.
6. Yes, if the heaven is not clean in his sight, how much less are they that dwell in houses of clay, of which also we ourselves were made?
7. He smote them as a moth: and from morning even to the evening they endure not. Because they were not able to help themselves, they perished; he breathed upon them and they died, because they had no wisdom.
8. Call now if there be any that will answer you; and to which of the angels will you look?

For verses 3-8, compare with: "Then a spirit passed before my face; the hair of my flesh stood up: It stood still, but I could not discern the form thereof: and image [was] before mine eyes, [there was] silence, and I heard a voice, [saying], Shall mortal man be more just than God? shall a man be more pure than his maker? Behold, he put no trust in his servants; and his angels he charged with folly: How much less [in] them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation [is] in the dust, [which] are crushed before the moth? They are destroyed from morning to evening: they perish for ever without any regarding [it]. Doth not their excellency [which is] in them go away? they die, even without wisdom. Call now, if there be any that will answer thee; and to which of the saints wilt thou turn?" (Job 4:15-21; 5:1)

Clement clearly has in mind the Septuagint version: "And a spirit came before my face; and my hair and flesh quivered. I arose and perceived it not: I looked, and there was no form before my eyes; but I only heard a breath and a voice, [saying], What, shall a mortal be pure before the Lord? or a man be blameless in regard to his works? Whereas he trusts not in his servants, and perceives perverseness in his angels. But [as for] them that dwell in houses of clay, of whom we also are formed of the same clay, he smites them like a moth. And from morning to evening they no longer exist: they have perished, because they cannot help themselves. For he blows upon them, and they are withered: they have perished for lack of wisdom. But call, if any one will hearken to thee, or if thou shalt see any of the holy angels."

9. For wrath kills the foolish man, and envy slays him that is in error.
10. I have seen the foolish taking root, but lo, their habitation was presently consumed.
11. Their children were far from safety; they perished at the gates of those who were lesser than themselves, and there was no man to help them.
12. For what was prepared for them, the righteous ate: and they will not be delivered from evil.

Verses 9-12 are from Job 5:2-5, but again Clement quotes the Greek Septuagint. The King James Version, based on the Hebrew, reads: "For wrath killeth the foolish man, and envy slayeth the silly one. I have seen the foolish taking root: but suddenly I cursed his habitation. His children are far from safety, and they are crushed in the gate, neither [is there] any to deliver [them]. Whose harvest the hungry eateth up, and taketh it even out of the thorns, and the robber swalloweth up their substance."

The Septuagint reads: "For wrath destroys the foolish one, and envy slays him that has gone astray. And I have seen foolish ones taking root: but suddenly their habitation was devoured. Let their children be far from safety, and let them be crushed at the doors of vile men, and let there be no deliverer. For what they have collected, the just shall eat; but they shall not be delivered out of calamities: let their strength be utterly exhausted."

13. Seeing then these things are obvious to us, it will be incumbent on us to take care that looking into the depths of the divine knowledge, we do all things in order, whatever our Lord has commanded us.
14. And particularly that we perform our offerings and service to God at their appointed seasons; for he has commanded these to be done, not rashly and disorderly, but at certain fixed times and hours.
15. Therefore he has ordained by his supreme will and authority both where and by what persons they are to be performed, so that all things piously done to all well-pleasing may be acceptable to him.
16. Therefore they who make their offerings at the appointed seasons are happy and accepted, because they are free from sin by obeying the commandments of the Lord.
17. And the same care must be had of the persons that minister to him.

"Let all things be done decently and in order" (1 Corinthians 14:40) was Paul's instruction to the church at Corinth. Apparently the Christians there again had lapsed into their old ways, for Clement is exhorting them to better church discipline by holding public services at fixed times under the direction of properly appointed ministers.

18. For the chief-priest has his proper services; to the priests their proper place is appointed; to the Levites appertain their proper ministries; and the layman is confined within the bounds of what is commanded to laymen.

Here and in verses 20-21 he appeals to the pattern of Jewish worship, which was the established model for the bishops, priests, deacons, and laity of the early Church.

19. Let every one of you therefore, brethren, bless God in his proper station, with a good conscience, and with all gravity, not exceeding the rule of his service that is appointed to him.
20. The daily sacrifices are not offered everywhere, nor the peace-offerings, nor the sacrifices appointed for sins and transgressions, but only at Jerusalem: nor just in any place there, but only at the altar before the temple, and what is offered is first diligently examined by the high-priest and the other minister we before mentioned.
21. They therefore who do anything which is not agreeable to His will are punished with death.
22. Consider, brethren, that by how much the better knowledge God has condescended to grant to us, by so much is the greater danger are we exposed to.

1. The orders of ministers in Christ's Church were established by the Apostles according to Christ's command, 7. after the example of Moses. 16. Therefore they who have been duly placed in the ministry according to their order cannot without great sin be put out of it.

1. The Apostles have preached to us from the Lord Jesus Christ, and Jesus Christ from God.
2. Christ therefore was sent by God, the Apostles by Christ; so both were orderly sent, according to the will of God.
3. For having received their command, and being thoroughly assured by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, and convinced by the word of God, with the fullness of the Holy Spirit they went abroad, proclaiming that the kingdom of God was at hand.
4. And thus preaching through countries and cities, they appointed the first fruits of their conversion to be bishops and ministers over those who would afterwards believe, having first proved them by the Spirit.
5. Nor was this any new thing, for long before it was written concerning bishops and deacons.
6. For thus the Scripture say in a certain place, I will appoint their overseers in righteousness, and their ministers in faith.

The source for this reference is uncertain.

7. And what wonder if they, to whom such a work was committed by God in Christ, established such officers as we before mentioned, when even that blessed and faithful servant in all his house, Moses, set down in the Holy Scriptures all things that were commanded him.
8. Whom also all the rest of the prophets followed, bearing witness with one consent to those things that were appointed by him.
9. For he, perceiving an emulation to arise among the tribes concerning the priesthood and that there was a strife about which of them should be adorned with that glorious name, commanded their twelve captains to bring to him twelve rods with the name of every tribe written upon its rod.

See Numbers 17:2.

10. And he took the rods and bound them together, and sealed them with the seals of the twelve princes of the tribes, and laid them up in the tabernacle of witness, upon the table of God.
11. And when he had shut the door of the tabernacle he sealed up the keys of it, as he had done the rods, and said to them, Men and brethren, whichever tribe will have its rod blossom, that tribe has God chosen to perform the office of a priest and to minister to him in holy things.

Keys are mentioned in the Bible as symbols of authority; see Isaiah 22:22, Revelation 1:18, 3:7, 9:1, 20:1, and of course Christ's mention of "the keys of the kingdom" in Matthew 16:19.

12. When morning came, he called together all Israel, six hundred thousand men, showed to the princes their seals, and opened the tabernacle of witness and brought forth the rods.
13. And the rod of Aaron was found not only to have blossomed, but also to have fruit upon it.
14. What do you think, beloved? Did not Moses before know what should happen?
15. Yes surely, but so that there might be no division or tumult in Israel, he did in this manner so the name of the true and only God might be glorified; to him be honor forever and ever. Amen.
16. So likewise our Apostles knew by our Lord Jesus Christ that contentions would arise upon account of the ministry.

An alternative translation is "about the name of the bishopric."

17. And therefore having a perfect foreknowledge of this, they appointed persons, as we have before said, and then gave direction how when they died, other chosen and approved men should follow in their ministry.

The New Testament mentions (what already was the practice of the Church) that four "orders" formed the government of the Church: laity, deacons, presbyters, and bishops.

1) The laity are called "saints" (Romans 1:7, 2 Corinthians 1:1, 1 Timothy 5:10), the "faithful" (Ephesians 1:1), and "brethren" (Colossians 1:2). The laity (Greek: laos) are all the people of God, the "priesthood" (1 Peter 2:4-10). Technically "laity" includes clergy, though in our day the word usually refers to those in the Church who are not ordained. It is from among the laity that the other three orders emerge.

2) The deacons, literally "servants," are ordained to serve the Church and must meet high qualifications (1 Timothy 3:8-13). The Apostles were the first to take on the service tasks of deacons, and when the workload became too great they called for "seven men of good reputation, full of the Holy Spirit and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business" (Acts 6:3).

3) The presbyters, or elders, are to "rule," "labor in the word," and to teach true "doctrine" (1 Timothy 5:17) in the local congregation. Paul "appointed elders in every church" (Acts 14:23) and later instructed his apostolic apprentice, Titus, to do the same in Crete (Titus 1:5). From the word "presbyter" came the shorter form "prest," which was used in the early Church and finally became "priest." The ordained Christian priesthood is not to be seen as a throwback to or a reenacting of the Old Testament priesthood, but rather joined to Christ who is our High Priest "according to the order of Melchizedek" (Hebrews 5:6, 10), and a minister of a New Covenant which supersedes the old.

4) The bishop is the "overseer" of the congregation and clergy in a given area. Often the terms "bishop" and "elder" are interchangeable in the New Testament (Acts 20:17, 28), with the bishop being the leader of the elders. The qualifications for bishop listed in 1 Timothy 3:1-7 and Titus 1:7-9 underscore this role. Nonetheless, "bishop" is a specific office both in the New Testament and in the early Church. The Twelve were the first to hold this office (in Acts 1:20 "office" is literally translated "bishopric") and they in turn consecrated other bishops to follow them. For example, Timothy and Titus are clearly of a separate order from that of elder (see 1 Timothy 5:17-22 and Titus 1:5). Early records show James was bishop of Jerusalem by A.D. 49 and functioned accordingly at the first council there (Acts 15:13-22). Peter is on record as the first bishop of Antioch prior to A.D. 53, and later first bishop of Rome, where he was martyred about A.D. 65 or 67. The bishop's authority is not over the Church but within the Church as a representative of Christ, "the Shepherd and Overseer (literally "Bishop") of your souls" (1 Peter 2:25).

Perhaps the earliest reference outside the New Testament to the presence of these four orders in Church government occurs in the writings of Ignatius, bishop of Antioch from A.D. 67-107, the very heart of the New Testament era. In his letter to the church at Philadelphia, he writes of "Christians (laity) at one with the bishop and the presbyters and the deacons..."

All this contrasts with the relatively recent development of religious bodies which call themselves "congregational" (ruled by the people), or "presbyterian" (ruled by the elders), or "episcopal" (ruled by the bishops), but is essential to understand the writings of the early Christians.

18. Therefore we cannot think that those may justly be thrown out of their ministry, who were either appointed by them, or afterwards chosen by other eminent men with the consent of the whole church; and who with all lowliness and innocence have ministered to the flock of Christ in peace and without self- interest, and were for a long time commended by all.
19. For it would be no small sin in us, if we would cast off from their bishopric those who holily and without blame fulfil the duties of it.
20. Blessed are those priests who finished their course before these times and have obtained a fruitful and perfect dissolution, for they have no fear anyone can turn them out of the place which is now appointed for them.
21. But we see how you have put out some who lived reputably among you from the ministry, which by their innocence they had adorned.

Apparently this was one of the Corinthians' "rash and disorderly" sins mentioned in 18:14 that Clement was trying to correct.

1. He exhorts them to peace from examples out of the Holy Scriptures, 20. particularly from St. Paul's exhortation to them.

1. You are contentious, brethren, and zealous for things that pertain not to salvation.
2. Look into the Holy Scriptures, which are the true words of the Holy Spirit. You know that there is nothing unjust or counterfeit written in them.
3. There you will not find that righteous men were ever cast off by those who as were good themselves.
4. They were persecuted, but it was by the wicked and unjust.
5. They were cast into prison, but they were cast in by those that were unholy.
6. They were stoned, but it was by transgressors.
7. They were killed, but by accursed men, and such as had taken up an unjust envy against them.
8. And all these things they underwent gloriously.
9. For what shall we say, brethren? Was Daniel cast into the den of lions by men fearing God? Ananias, Asarius, and Misael, were they cast into the fiery furnace by men professing the excellent and glorious worship of the Most High? God forbid.

See Daniel 6:5-23 and Daniel 3:13-30. Where Clement got these names for the three men cast into the fiery furnace is a mystery, for the Bible lists them as Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, and the Septuagint calls them Sedrach, Misach, and Abdenago.

10. What kind of persons then were they that did these things? They were abominable men, full of all wickedness, who were incensed to so great a degree as to bring into sufferings those who with a holy and unblamable purpose of mind worshipped God. They did not know that the Most High is the protector and defender of all such as with a pure conscience serve his holy name; to whom be glory forever and ever. Amen.
11. But they who with a full persuasion have endured these things are made partakers of glory and honor, and are exalted and lifted up by God in their memorial throughout all ages. Amen.
12. [New paragraph in the original] Therefore it will be incumbent on us also, brethren, to follow such examples as these; for it is written, Hold fast to such as are holy; for they that do so will be sanctified.

The source for this reference is unclear.

13. And again in another place he says, With the pure you will be pure, (and with the elect you will be elect) [omitted by Junius, and now restored from the MS.], but with the perverse man you will be perverse.

After "will be pure" Clement wrote "and with the elect you will be elect." Archbishop Wake's translation included the phrase, but it is missing from an ancient copy by Junius. An alternative reading for "you will be perverse" is "you will turn aside."

Compare with: "With the merciful thou wilt shew thyself merciful; with an upright man thou wilt shew thyself upright; With the pure thou wilt shew thyself pure; and with the froward thou wilt shew thyself froward." (Psalm 18:25, 26); the Septuagint reads: "With the holy thou wilt be holy; and with the innocent man thou wilt be innocent. And with the excellent [man] thou wilt be excellent; and with the perverse thou wilt shew frowardness." ("Froward" means not easily controlled, willful, contrary, etc.)

"With the merciful thou wilt shew thyself merciful, [and] with the upright man thou wilt shew thyself upright. With the pure thou wilt shew thyself pure; and with the froward thou wilt shew thyself unsavory." (2 Samuel 22:26, 27.)

14. Let us therefore join ourselves to the innocent and righteous; for such are the elect of God.
15. Why are there strifes, and anger, and divisions, and schisms, and wars, among us?

Compare with: "From whence [come] wars and fightings among you? [come they] not hence, [even] of your lusts that war in your members?" (James 4:1)

16. Have we not all one God, and one Christ? Is not one spirit of grace poured out upon us all? Have we not one calling in Christ?

Compare with: "[There is] one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; One Lord, one faith, one baptism, One God and Father of all, who [is] above all, and through all, and in you all." (Ephesians 4:4-6)

17. Why then do we rend and tear in pieces the members of Christ and raise seditions against our own body, and are come to such a height of madness as to forget that we are members one of another?

"So we, [being] many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another." (Romans 12:5)

18. Remember the words of our Lord Jesus, how he said, Woe to that man by whom offenses come, for it were better for him that he had never been born, than that he should have offended one of my elect. It were better for him that a millstone should be tied about his neck, and he should be cast into the sea, than that he should offend one of my little ones.

See Luke 17:2.

19. Your schism has perverted many, has discouraged many: it has caused diffidence in many, and grief in us all. And still your sedition continues.
20. [New paragraph in the original] Take the epistle of the blessed Paul the Apostle into your hands: what was it that he wrote to you at his first preaching the Gospel among you?
21. Truly, he by the spirit admonished you concerning himself, and Cephas, and Apollos, because even then you had begun to fall into parties and factions among yourselves.

Peter is Cephas, a stone (John 1:42); compare with: "Now this I say, that every one of you saith, I am of Paul, and I of Apollos; and I of Cephas; and I of Christ. Is Christ divided?... Who then is Paul, and who [is] Apollos, but ministers by whom ye believe, even as the Lord gave to every man? I have planted, Apollos watered; but God gave the increase." (1 Corinthians 1:12, 13; 3:5, 6)

22. Nevertheless your partiality then led you into a much less sin because you placed your affections upon Apostles, men of eminent reputation in the church, and upon another who was greatly tested and approved of by them.
23. But consider, we appeal to you, who are they that have now led you astray and lessened the reputation of that brotherly love that was so eminent among you?
24. It is a shame, my beloved, yes, a very great shame and unworthy of your Christian profession, to hear that the most firm and ancient church of the Corinthians would, by one or two persons, be led into a sedition against its priests.
25. And this report is come not only to us, but to those also that differ from us.
26. So much so that the name of the Lord is blasphemed through your folly, and even you yourselves are brought into danger by it.
27. [New paragraph in the original] Let us therefore with all haste put an end to this sedition, and let us fall down before the Lord and beseech him with tears that he would be favorably reconciled to us, and restore us again to a venerable and holy course of brotherly love.
28. For this is the gate of righteousness that opens to life, as it is written: Open to me the gates of righteousness; I will go in to them and will praise the Lord. This is the gate of the Lord, and the righteous will enter into it.

See Psalm 118: 19, 20.

29. Although therefore many gates are opened, yet this gate of righteousness is that gate in Christ, at which blessed are they that enter in and direct their way in holiness and righteousness, doing all things without disorder.
30. Let a man be faithful; let him be powerful in the utterance of knowledge; let him be wise in making an exact judgment of words; let him be pure in all this actions.
31. Still, by how much the more he seems to be above others by reason of these things, by so much the more will it be incumbent on him to be humble-minded, and to seek what is profitable to all men, and not his own advantage.

1. The value which God puts upon love and unity: the effects of a true charity, 8. which is the gift of God and must be obtained by prayer.

1. He that has the love that is in Christ, let him keep the commandments of Christ.
2. For who is able to express the obligation of the love of God? What man is sufficient to declare, and is fitting, the excellency of its beauty?
3. The height to which charity leads is inexpressible.
4. Charity unites us to God; charity covers the multitude of sins; charity endures all things and is long-suffering in all things.

Compare with: "And above all things have fervent charity among yourselves; for charity shall cover the multitude of sins." (1 Peter 4:8); and 1 Corinthians 13.

5. There is nothing base and sordid in charity; charity does not lift up itself above others; it admits of no divisions; it is not seditious, but does all things in peace and concord.
6. By charity were all the elect of God made perfect: Without it nothing is pleasing and acceptable in the sight of God.
7. Through charity the Lord joined us to himself; for the love that he bore towards us, our Lord Jesus Christ gave his own blood for us, by the will of God: his flesh for our flesh, and his soul for our souls.
8. [New paragraph in the original] You see, beloved, how great and wonderful a thing charity is, and how that no expressions are sufficient to declare its perfection.
9. But who is fit to be found in it? Only those to whom God will condescend to grant it.
10. Let us therefore pray to him, and beseech him, that we may be worthy of it; so that we may live in charity and be unblamable, without human propensities, without respect of persons.
11. All the ages of the world, from Adam even to this day, are passed away; but they who have been made perfect in love, have by the grace of God obtained a place among the righteous and will be made manifest at the visitation of the kingdom of Christ.
12. For it is written, Enter into your chambers for a little space, till my anger and indignation will pass away. And I will remember the good day, and will raise you up out of your graves.

Compare with: "Come, my people, enter thou into thy chambers, and shut thy doors about thee: hide thyself as it were for a little moment, until the indignation be overpast. For, behold, the Lord cometh out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity: the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain." (Isaiah 26:20 21)

13. Happy shall we be then, beloved, if we shall have fulfilled the commandments of God in the unity of love; so that through love, our sins may be forgiven us.
14. For so it is written, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven and whose sins are covered. Blessed in the man to whom the Lord imputes no sin and in whose mouth there is no guile.

See Psalm 32:1, 2.

15. Now this blessing is fulfilled in those who are chosen by God through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be glory forever and ever. Amen.


1. He exhorts such as have been concerned in these divisions to repent and return to their unity, confessing their sin to God, 7. which he enforces from the example of Moses, 10. and of many among the heathen, 23. and of Judith and Esther among the Jews.

1. Let us therefore, as many as have transgressed by any of the suggestions of the adversary, beg God's forgiveness.
2. And as for those who have been the chief leaders of the sedition and faction among you, let them look to the common end of our hope.
3. For as many as are endued with fear and charity would rather they themselves should fall into trials than their neighbors. And they would choose to be themselves condemned, rather than that the good and just charity delivered to us should suffer.
4. For it is appropriate for a man to confess wherein he has transgressed.
5. And not to harden his heart, as the hearts of those were hardened who raised up sedition against Moses the servant of God; whose punishment was manifest to all men, for they went down alive into the grave, and death swallowed them up.

See Numbers 16:27-33.

6. Pharaoh and his troops, and all the rulers of Egypt with their chariots also and their horsemen, were for no other cause drowned in the bottom of the Red Sea and perished, but because they hardened their foolish hearts after so many signs were done in the land of Egypt by Moses the servant of God.

See Exodus 14:23-31.

7. [New paragraph in the original] Beloved, God is not indigent of anything, nor does he demand anything of us, but that we should confess our sins to him.
8. For so says the Holy David, I will confess to the Lord, and it will please him better than a young bullock that has horns and hoof. Let the poor see it and be glad.

See Psalm 69:31, 32.

9. And again he says, Offer to God the sacrifice of praise, and pay your vows to the Most High. And call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver you, and you will glorify me. The sacrifice of God is a broken spirit.

See Psalm 50:14; 51:17.

10. [New paragraph in the original] You know, beloved, you know full well the Holy Scriptures and have thoroughly searched into the oracles of God: call them therefore to your remembrance.
11. For when Moses went up into the mount, and tarried there forty days and forty nights in fasting and humiliation, God said to him, Arise, Moses, and get down quickly from here, for your people whom you brought out of the land of Egypt have committed wickedness; they have transgressed the way that I commanded them and have made to themselves graven images.

See Exodus 32:7,8; Deuteronomy 9:12-16.

12. And the Lord said to him, I have spoken to you once and twice, saying I have seen this people, and behold it is a stiffnecked people; let me therefore destroy them, and put out their name from under heaven. And I will make to you a great and a wonderful nation, that will be much larger than this.
13. But Moses said, Not so, Lord; Forgive now this people their sin; or if you will not, blot me also out of the book of the living. O admirable charity! O insuperable perfection! The servant speaks freely to his Lord; he beseeches him either to forgive the people, or to destroy him together with them.

See Exodus 32:32. Compare with Paul in Romans 9:3.

14. [New paragraph in the original] Who is there among you that is generous? Who that is compassionate? Who that has any charity? Let him say, If this sedition, this contention, and these schisms, be upon my account, I am ready to depart; to go away wherever you please, and do whatever you will command me. Only let the flock of Christ be in peace, with the elders that are set over it.
15. He that will do this, will get to himself a very great honor in the Lord; and there is no place but what will be ready to receive him: For the earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof.

See Psalm 24:1.

16. They who have their conversation towards God have both done and will always be ready to do these things, and not need to repent of it.

The Greek word translated "conversation" here and in the New Testament, depending on context, may mean "manner of life" or lifestyle.

17. [New paragraph in the original] No, even the heathen themselves have given us examples of this kind.
18. For we read how many kings and princes, in times of pestilence, being warned by their oracles, have given up themselves to death, that by their own blood they might deliver their citizens from destruction.
19. Others have forsaken their cities, so that they might put an end to the seditions in them.
20. We know how many among ourselves have given themselves up to bonds, so they might free others from them.
21. Others have sold themselves into bondage so they might feed their brethren with the price of themselves.
22. And even many women, being strengthened by the grace of God, have done many glorious and manly things on such occasions.
23. The blessed Judith, when her city was besieged, desired the elders, that they would allow her to go into the camp of their enemies; and she went out exposing herself to danger for the love she bore to her country and her people that were besieged; and the Lord delivered Holofernes into the hands of a woman.

The reference is to the book of Judith, chapters 7-13, in the Apocrypha.

24. Nor did Esther, being perfect in faith, expose herself to any less hazard for the delivery of the twelve tribes of Israel, in danger of being destroyed. For, by fasting and humbling herself, she entreated the Great Maker of all things, the God of spirits; so that beholding the humility of her soul, he delivered the people for whose sake she was in peril.

See Esther 4:10 to 8:7.

The benefit of mutual advice and correction. He entreats them to follow that which is here given to them.

1. Wherefore let us also pray for such as are fallen into sin. That being endued with humility and moderation, they may submit not to us, but to the will of God.

He refers primarily to the sin of schism.

2. For by this means they will obtain a fruitful and perfect remembrance with mercy, both in our prayers to God, and in our mention of them before his saints.
3. Let us receive correction, at which no man ought to repine.
4. Beloved, the reproof and the correction we exercise towards one another is good and exceeding profitable, for it unites us the more closely to the will of God.
5. For so says the Holy Scripture, The Lord corrected me, but he did not deliver me over to death. For whom the Lord loves he chastens, and punishes every son whom he receives.

Clement reminds the Corinthians of a common Bible teaching.

Compare with: "The Lord hath chastened me sore: but he hath not given me over unto death." (Psalm 118:18); "For whom the Lord loveth he correcteth; even as a father the son [in whom] he delighteth." (Proverbs 3:11)

"For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not? But if ye be without chastisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons. Furthermore we have had fathers of our flesh which corrected [us], and we gave [them] reverence: shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father of spirits, and live? For they verily for a few days chastened [us] after their own pleasure; but he for [our] profit, that [we] might be partakers of his holiness. Now no chastening for the present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous: nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto them which are exercised thereby." (Hebrews 12:6-11)

In the context about church discipline on those who take the Eucharist unworthily because they do not first judge themselves, Paul says: "For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged. But when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world." (1 Corinthians 11:32)

"As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: be zealous therefore, and repent." (Revelation 3:19)

6. The righteous, says he, will instruct me in mercy and reprove me; but let not oil of sinners make fat my head.

Compare with: "Let the righteous smite me; [it shall be] a kindness: and let him reprove me; [it shall be] an excellent oil, [which] shall not break my head; for yet my prayer also [shall be] in their calamities." (Psalm 141:5); the Septuagint version reads: "The righteous shall chasten me with mercy, and reprove me: but let not the oil of the sinner anoint my head: for yet shall my prayer also be in their pleasures." (Clement evidently refers to the Septuagint, which carries the idea that if sinners console one, the tendency will be to join them.)

7. And again he says, Happy is the man whom God corrects, so do not despise the chastening of the Almighty.

A verbatim quote of Job 5:17.

8. For he makes sore and binds up; he wounds and his hands make whole.
9. He will deliver you in six troubles; yes, in seven there will no evil touch you. In famine he will redeem you from death and in war from the power of the sword.
10. You will be hid from the scourge of the tongue; neither will you be afraid of destruction when it comes.
11. You will laugh at the wicked and sinners; neither will you be afraid of the beasts of the earth. The wild beast will be at peace with you.
12. Then will you know that your house will be in peace, and the habitation of your tabernacle will not err. You will know also that your descendants will be great and your offspring as the grass of the earth.
13. You will come to your grave as the ripe corn that is taken in due time, and as a shock of corn comes in, in its season.

Compare verses 8-13 with: "For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole. He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee. In famine he shall redeem thee from death: and in war from the power of the sword. Thou shalt be hid from the scourge of the tongue: neither shalt thou be afraid of destruction when it cometh. At destruction and famine thou shalt laugh: neither shalt thou be afraid of the beasts of the earth. For thou shalt be in league with the stones of the field: and the beasts of the field shall be at peace with thee. And thou shalt know that thy tabernacle [shall be] in peace; and thou shalt visit thy habitation, and shalt not sin. Thou shalt know also that they seed [shall be] great, and thine offspring as the grass of the earth. Thou shalt come to [thy] grave in a full age, like a shock of corn cometh in his season." (Job 5:18-26)

Compare the Septuagint version of this passage: "For he causes [a man] to be in pain, and restores [him] again: he smites, and his hands heal. Six times he shall deliver thee out of distresses: and in the seventh harm shall not touch thee. In famine he shall deliver thee from death: and in war he shall free thee from the power of the sword. He shall hide thee from the scourge of the tongue: and thou shalt not be afraid of coming evils. Thou shalt laugh at the unrighteous and the lawless: and thou shalt not be afraid of wild beasts. For the wild beasts of the field shall be at peace with thee. Then shalt thou know that thy house shall be at peace, and the provision for thy tabernacle shall not fail. And thou shalt know that thy seed [shall be] abundant; and thy children shall be like the herbage of the field. And thou shalt come to the grave like ripe corn reaped in its season, or as a heap of the corn-flour collected in proper time."

14. You see, beloved, how there will be a defence for those that are corrected of the Lord. For being a good instructor, he is willing to admonish us by his holy discipline.
15. Therefore, you who laid the first foundation of this sedition, submit yourselves to your priests; and be instructed to repentance, bending the knees of your hearts.
16. Learn to be subject, laying aside all proud and arrogant boasting of your tongues.
17. For it is better for you to be found little, and approved in the sheepfold of Christ, than to seem to yourselves better than others, and be cast out of his fold.
18. For thus speaks the excellent and all virtuous wisdom, Behold I will pour out the word of my spirit upon you, I will make known my speech to you.
19. Because I called and you would not hear, I stretched out my words and you regarded not.
20. But you have set at nought all my counsel, and would none of my reproof. I will also laugh at your calamity, and mock when your fear comes.
21. When your fear comes as desolation, and your destruction as a whirlwind, when distress and anguish come upon you.
22. Then will you call upon me, but I will not hear you; the wicked will seek me, but they will not find me because they hated knowledge and did not seek the fear of the Lord.
23. They would not hearken to my counsel; they despised all my reproof. Therefore will they eat the fruit of their own ways and be filled with their own wickedness.

Verses 19-23 are from Proverbs 1:23-31.

1. Recommends them to God. Desires soon to hear that this Epistle has had a good effect upon them. 4. Conclusion.

1. Now God, the inspector of all things, the Father of Spirits, and the Lord of all flesh, who has chosen our Lord Jesus Christ, and us by him, to be his distinctive people.
2. Grant to every soul of man that calls upon his glorious and holy name, faith, fear, peace, long-suffering, patience, temperance, holiness and sobriety, to all well-pleasing in his sight, through our High-Priest and Protector Jesus Christ; by whom be glory, and majesty, and power, and honor, to him now and forever more. Amen.
3. [New paragraph in the original] The messengers whom we have sent to you, Claudius, Ephebus, and Valerios Bito, with Fortunatus, send back to us again with all speed in peace and joy, so they may the sooner acquaint us with your peace and concord, so much prayed for and desired by us; and that we may rejoice in your good order.
4. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you, and with all that are anywhere called by God through him; to whom be honor and glory, and might and majesty, and eternal dominion, by Christ Jesus, from everlasting to everlasting. Amen.

This is Archbishop Wake's translation from the ancient Greek copy of the Epistle, which is at the end of the celebrated Alexandrine Manuscript of the Septuagint and New Testament, presented by Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, to King Charles the First, and is now in the British Museum.

Your comments or feedback on The Seraphim Files are welcome.

Click here to return to Index